Pediatric hydronephrosis induced by pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is treated by dismembered pyeloplasty (DP) via open and laparoscopic surgery. The etiology of PUJO involves both intrinsic stenosis and extrinsic compression of crossing vessels (CVs). PUJO owing to CVs is also treated by DP, as there is no consensus concerning this vascular condition. We encountered a 2-year-old infant with pure extrinsic PUJO combined with horseshoe kidney who successfully underwent laparoscopic transposition for CVs (vascular hitch).
A 2-year-old boy was prenatally diagnosed with left multicystic dysplastic kidney (MDCK) and right hydronephrosis and received a definitive diagnosis after birth. At 6 months old, renal scintigraphy revealed a non-functioning pattern in the left kidney and an obstructive pattern in the right, showing no response to furosemide loading. The patient also had recurrent urinary tract infection, and his right hydronephrosis gradually worsened. We decided to perform surgery for the right PUJO. Preoperative enhanced computed tomography detected three right renal vessels independently branching from the abdominal aorta. The middle renal vessels were located at the ventral side of the pelvis and coincident with the site of PUJO. These vessels were suspected of being CVs. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery electively. A 5-mm trocar was inserted at the umbilicus for a 5-mm, 30° rigid scope. Two additional ports were then inserted under laparoscope inspection. The dilated right pelvis and CVs were detected after ascending colon mobilization. To confirm the pathogenesis of PUJO, the CVs were dissected and taped. After taping the CVs, an intraoperative diuretic test was performed using furosemide loading. Peristalsis of the right ureter was recognized, and the extrinsic PUJO owing to the CVs was definitively confirmed. We therefore performed transposition for the CVs (vascular hitch procedure). The CVs were mobilized in the cranial direction and those were wrapped by dilated pelvis. The post-operative course was uneventful. The renal scintigraphy findings improved and showed a favorable response of furosemide loading.
The laparoscopic vascular hitch procedure is minimally invasive and effective for extrinsic PUJO due to CVs. Anastomotic stricture after Anderson and Hynes DP can be prevented by appropriate patient selection.