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Table 1 Previously reported treatment methods of gastrobronchial fistula

From: A case report of a gastrobronchial fistula and lung abscess caused by leakage from the staple line of a gastric tube after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer

Endoscopic obliteration
Fast-hardening amino acid solution [8]
Fibrin glue [6, 9]
Self-expanding stent [5, 10]
Dual self-expandable stent [11]
Placement of a cardial septal occluder [12]
Titanium clips [13]
Surgical intervention
Direct approach
Reconstruction by colonic interposition [6]
Reconstruction by jejunum [14]
Pedicled pericardial flap [15, 16]
Omental patch, pleural patch [6]
Muscle flap
 Pectoralis major muscle flap (PMM) [17]
 Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap [15]
 Intercostal muscle [4, 6, 18]
Alloderm patch with intercostal muscle flap [19]
Lobectomy [20]
Lobectomy and intercostal muscle patch