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Table 1 Risk factors for Saint’s triad and umbilical hernia in both patients

From: Umbilical hernia with cholelithiasis and hiatal hernia: a clinical entity similar to Saint’s triad

  Hiatus hernia Cholelithiasis Diverticulosis Umbilical hernia Case 1 Case 2
Age   aged aged aged 79 41
Sex   female female female female female
Obesity (BMI) + + + + 27.7 29.4
Pregnancy + +   + + +
Race   Pime Indians and Native American Western   Japan Japan
Constipation    motility    
etc. taruma, congenital malformation physical activity diet, physical activity, western lifestyle ascites abdominal distension